The Wide Application of Diamond Cutting Tools
Diamond tools have the characteristics of high hardness, high compressive strength, good thermal conductivity and wear resistance, which can obtain high machining
accuracy and efficiency in high speed cutting.
The above characteristics of PCD cutting tools are determined by the state of diamond crystal. In diamond crystal, the four valence electrons of carbon atoms are bonded
by tetrahedral structure, and each carbon atom forms covalent bond with four adjacent atoms to form diamond structure. The structure has strong directivity of binding force,
which makes diamond have extremely high hardness. Because the structure of polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is fine-grained diamond sintered body with different orientations,
the hardness and wear resistance of PCD are still lower than that of single crystal diamond, although the binder is added. However, the PCD sintered body is isotropic, so it is
not easy to crack along a single cleavage plane.
The processing range of PCD tools has expanded from traditional metal cutting to stone processing, wood processing, metal matrix composites, glass, engineering ceramics
and other materials. Through the analysis of the application of PCD tools in recent years, it can be seen that PCD tools are mainly used in the following two aspects:
1) Processing of difficult to process non-ferrous metal materials: when ordinary tools are used to process difficult to process non-ferrous metal materials, they often have defects
such as easy wear and low processing efficiency, while PCD tools can show good processing performance. If PCD tool is used, hypereutectic Si Al alloy, a new type of engine piston
material, can be processed effectively.
2) Hard to machine non-metallic materials processing: PCD tool is very suitable for stone, hard carbon, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP), wood-based panels and other hard
to machine non-metallic materials processing.
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